The history and cause of the bubonic plague

Many other plague research projects at NIAID are focusing on early-stage vaccine development, therapeutics, and diagnostics. In addition to the bubonic infection, others point to additional septicemic a type of "blood poisoning" and pneumonic an airborne plague that attacks the lungs before the rest of the body forms of the plague, which lengthen the duration of outbreaks throughout the seasons and help account for its high mortality rate and additional recorded symptoms.

The person also carries a pointer or rod to keep patients at a distance. Biological warfare Some of the earliest instances of biological warfare were said to have been products of the plague, as armies of the 14th century were recorded catapulting diseased corpses over the walls of towns and villages to spread the pestilence.

Based on genetic evidence derived from Black Death victims in the East Smithfield burial site in England, Schuenemann et al. A vaccine specific for plague has been used in the past in endemic areas for people likely to be exposed to rodents and their fleas.

Smooth, painful lymph gland swelling called a bubo, commonly found in the groin, but may occur in the armpits or neck, most often near the site of the initial infection bite or scratch Pain may occur in the area before the swelling appears Gangrene of the extremities such as toes, fingers, lips and tip of the nose.

History of the Plague

The Justinian Plague began in AD and was followed by frequent outbreaks over the next two hundred years that eventually killed over 25 million people Rosen, and affected much of the Mediterranean basin—virtually all of the known world at that time.

The plague was somewhat less common in parts of Europe that had smaller trade relations with their neighbours, including the majority of the Basque Countryisolated parts of Belgium and the Netherlands, and isolated alpine villages throughout the continent.

Black DeathPlague victims during the Black Death, 14th century. Plague symptoms depend on how the patient was exposed to the plague bacteria. Share Your Story The bacteria that cause plague are known as Yersinia pestis. More recently, the World Health Organization reported an outbreak of plague in Madagascar in November and again from August through October 30,with a total of 1, confirmed, probable, and suspected cases of plague, including deaths according to Madagascar health officials.

You can get it if you have bubonic or septicemic plague that spreads to your lungs.

Plague (Black Death)

Bubonic plague is one of three life-threatening diseases caused by the bacteria Yersinia pestis. Nature of the disease Plague is primarily a disease of rodents, and humans enter only accidentally into the usual cycle.

Plague in Cats and Dogs Cats and — to a much lesser degree — dogs are susceptible to plague, and can transmit it to their owners or veterinarians.

Left untreated, of those that contract the bubonic plague, 80 per cent die within eight days. The bacteria remain harmless to the flea, allowing the new host to spread the bacteria. Duringthe disease travelled eastward to Gazaand north along the eastern coast to cities in LebanonSyria and Palestineincluding AshkelonAcreJerusalemSidonDamascusHomsand Aleppo.

Bubonic plague

History Plague is an ancient disease that was described during Classical times as occurring in North Africa and the Middle East. The bacteria multiply in the lymph node closest to where the bacteria entered the human body.The Black Death was an epidemic of bubonic plague, a disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis that circulates among wild rodents where they live in great numbers and density.

Such an area is called a ‘plague focus’ or a ‘plague reservoir’. Bubonic plague symptoms and signs include painful and enlarged or swollen lymph nodes (an enlarged lymph node due to plague is called a bubo), chills, headache, fever, and weakness. Septicemic plague (Black Death or black plague) symptoms and signs include fever, weakness, abdominal pain, chills, and shock.

The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated 75 to million people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from to Plague was the cause of some of the most-devastating epidemics in history.

Bubonic plague is the best-known form in popular lore, History. Plague is an ancient disease that was described during Classical times as occurring in North Africa and the Middle East.

Black Death

Pneumonic plague may develop from inhaling infectious droplets or may develop from untreated bubonic or septicemic plague after the bacteria spread to the lungs.

The pneumonia may cause respiratory failure and shock.

What Is Bubonic Plague?

In bubonic plague, the most common form, bacteria infect the lymph system and become inflamed. (The lymph or lymphatic system is a major component of .

The history and cause of the bubonic plague
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